We’ve put this guide together to help you with strategic planning, consumer research and innovation, full-service digital offering (display, mobile, paid search engine marketing, search engine optimisation and social media), data solutions and more.


Advanced Booking Deadline. This relates to media that impose a strict early booking incentive such as TV. The maximum discount is gained upon booking before the advanced booking deadline of approximately 6-12 weeks in advance.

The content or advertising can be seen on the screen without having to scroll down.

The actual TVR’s delivered by the relevant Broadcasters under a booking Agreement as reported by AGB NIELSEN MEDIA RESEARCH.

Shortened version of 'advertising expenditure'. Adspend is used to monitor brands advertising expenditure across each media by month and by media company. Can be used in connection with expenditure by one, many or all advertisers. Has technical overtones when used in advertising research, eg tracking studies.

Ad serving describes the technology and service that places advertisements on websites.

Software on a user’s browser which prevents advertisements from being displayed.

All Adults that fall within the socio-economic grade “ABC1”. Demographic classifications in Ireland refer to the social grade. These are used to classify people of different social grade and income and earnings levels.

Text and image ads by Google that advertised on content websites.

The contractor appointed by the Irish Broadcasters to measure television viewing in the Republic of Ireland, or any superseding contractor appointed by the Irish Broadcasters.

Advertising airtime on Republic of Ireland or Island of Ireland Television (excluding any interactive element and sponsorship element).

This is a mathematical or statistical method is used by companies such as Google to determine the priority by which pages should rank more highly than others. Changes in algorithm results correlate with clients website performance depending on what those changes are.

Ambient media are found in the "surroundings" (the dictionary definition of the word is "surrounding, circumfused"). Generally referred to as 'out-of-home' media. Most media not included in the classic TV, press, poster, radio, cinema, direct mail and 'new' media definitions can be consigned to this category. Examples would be advertisements on dripmats, eggs, football goal nets, litter bins and restaurant serviettes.

In relation to media campaigns, attribution modelling shows how a team of ads contribute to a sale or conversion over an extended period of time. So instead of the traditional method of crediting a conversion or sale to the last ad clicked or viewed, an attribution model will attribute credit to each ad or touchpoint along the sales funnel. This is used to effectively understand the role and influence each channel has to achieve the marketing objectives. Using attribution modelling is an effective way of improving your return on investment and streamlining each campaign to deliver optimised campaigns.

An abbreviation for Average Quarter-Hour Persons. This is the average number of persons listening to a particular station for at least five minutes during a 15-minute period.

A group of households or individuals who are attending, listening or watching something. It is often used to indicate viewers of a television program or another advertising medium. Audience measurements are expressed as percentages, or as estimated numbers of households or individuals watching or listening to a program.

Estimates of numbers of people viewing a program or time period, by age, sex, etc.

The number or percent of households or individuals reached by one program (or station) that are also reached by another program (or station).

A media audit consists of an assessment of the effectiveness of media planning and/or buying, normally involving comparison with similar or competitive campaigns.

Audio-visual - term to describe both TV and VOD which is video on demand.

A bus poster format positioned behind the driver and facing head-on towards passengers.


Advertisements on a Web page that link to an advertiser's site. They are the most common unit of advertising on the Web.

Large format poster advertising displays intended for viewing from extended distances.  Billboard displays can include, but not limited to: 48 sheets, 96 sheets, portrait sites or Golden Squares.

A facility for extending the area covered by a press advertisement to the very edge of the page on which it is printed.

National or local/regional newspaper which is approximately 56cms in depth, compared with the 36cms depth of 'tabloids'. In the national press sector, the broadsheet format is used nowadays used exclusively by quality ('upmarket') newspapers.

An ad spot given to the advertiser without cost either to make up for undelivered audience, or as an inducement to buy additional spots.

A browser feature that allows a user to save a link to a Web page.

Signals transmitted over-the-air for television or radio for use by the general public.

Also called a Web browser. A software application that allows users to locate and display information on the Web.

A short, concentrated advertising campaign. Most often, though not exclusively, applied to TV and radio.

A firm primarily engaged in purchasing media.


Area of a computer’s memory or directory where the browser stores viewed Web pages.

An Advertising break within a TV programme.

The number of print copies sold. ABC circulation refers to an audited circulation by the Audit Bureau of Circulation.

An Internet term indicating the number of times which an advertisement banner was clicked on at a website.

An Internet term used to measure the success a Web site has in persuading a user to go to another site.

A term used to describe the amount of advertising in a break or the number of campaigns activity at a certain period of time.

A bus wrapped in an advertising message. In this instance, the window areas are left uncovered.

A small advertising panel positioned inside Dublin Bus, DART or Arrow targeting passengers.

Advertising value as sold by other media owners (including but not limited to radio advertising airtime, print advertising space and online advertising space).

Means where a campaign consists of two or more separate Advertisements (or variations of the same) the agreed order for transmission and any changes thereto.

Identification messages given to a Web browser by a Web server. The browser on an individual’s computer stores the message in a text file called cookie.txt. The message is then sent back to the server each time the browser requests a page from the server. The main purpose of cookies is to identify users (consumers) and prepare customised Web pages (offering information, advertising, goods or services) for them. Cookies can include passwords and Web site preferences, as well as a history of the other sites visited, e-mail information, etc. Cookies themselves are not gathering data, but they are used as a tracking device to help the people who are gathering information.

Cost-effectiveness is a measure or expression of the extent to which some advertising activity has achieved its goals, per unit cost. Cost-effectiveness should not be confused with cost-efficiency.

Cost-efficiency is a comparative measure of audience delivered per unit of cost (eg a TV spot costing €1000 seen by 100,000 housewives delivers a cost-per-thousand of €1000/100 = €10.00). It is typically used in inter- or intra-media comparisons of costs-per-thousand (usually abbreviated to 'cpt' - 'cpm' in some countries).

The cost of reaching 1,000 people in the identified target market with an advertising message.

Digital: The cost of reaching 1,000 people in the identified target market with an advertising message.

Sponsorship of a program by two or more advertisers.

The number of people who will see a campaign at least once usually expressed as a percentage of an audience. 1+ means how many people have watched the ad once whereas 2+ is how many people watched the ad twice.

Collaboration is the term used whereby multiple media are used to achieve a common campaign goal. Collaborations can involve one media owner using different formats (e.g. RTE Guide, RTE TV, RTE Player, RTE Radio) but can also involve multiple media owners across a broad spectrum.

This refers to TV where all of the TV viewing figures are included in Nielsen and these include people who have watched the ads using a personal video recorder.

Where ads are placed to target the content that is on a given website.

A defined path which visitors take in order to reach a specified objective.

A message within the creative designed to prompt an action. Especially important in direct response advertising.

CPA - cost per action. CPL - cost per lead.

Outdoor advertising is usually on display for a 14 day period known as a cycle.  There are 26 cycles in a calendar year.  A posting calendar outlines the relevant dates. 


Facts or figures from which conclusions can be drawn. A plural noun.

Broadcast time period (segment), eg daytime 10:00am to 4:00pm. Often applied to segments which are used by TV companies in allocating rates to different parts of the day - but there are no generally agreed exact definitions by time period.

Day Part Profile: means the allocation of TVR delivery by Day Part as set out in the Deal Memorandum.

Digital dPod - outdoor digital format usually in shopping centres.

An audience type defined by age or social classification or a combination thereof as defined by AGB NIELSEN MEDIA RESEARCH.

Digital transmission technology has a very wide range of applications in broadcast media, video, telephony, computing, etc. In TV, it facilitates more efficient use of transmission frequencies (more channels for a given bandwidth), unlike its predecessor, PAL, which was analogue. Digital signals can be encrypted and compressed. The technology offers enhanced picture quality and improved sound quality for both TV and radio services.

Any Out-of-Home advertising display that can change its advertising content using digital technology.

Data management platform. In the context of digital marketing, a DMP is used to manage the data from all digital sources (from collection, translation, classification and indexing) with the purpose of serving the right ad to the most relevant consumer and using this to segment the consumer.

The part of an Internet URL (Universal Resource Locator) selected and registered by an individual, business or organisation to represent their web presence. It consists of at least two parts that are separated by "dots." The last part or suffix indicates the type of site, such as ".edu" for schools, ".gov" for government, and ".com" for commercial business.

Refers to the same person seeing the ad repeatedly and is a term used in the context of audience duplication.

Direct response TV - DRTV is where the TV airtime is consolidated into daytime and the creative messaging is designed to prompt an action.

Dynamic retargeting is an ad buy that enables brands to personalise their digital campaigns by featuring products or content recently viewed or otherwise relevant to the user.

The interval of time when a consumer is in close proximity to an OOH ad or digital ad.


Early right hand page - position in a newspaper or magazine title.

Econometrics can measure the impact your communications have on sales and profit. It can also forecast the effects of future campaigns using the past. Econometrics are based on statistical information based on multiple sources including sales, profits, website information, weather, competitive activity and so on. Econometrics is based on quantitative research and is a means to turn relevant and significant data for clients into actionable insights. Most econometric studies would need at least a year of data in order to provide good quality information.

The average number of opportunities-to-see the advertising message which is considered to achieve the media objective set for the advertising campaign.

An Advertising break between two distinct TV programmes.

Takeover where an ad is served to person landing on the website (despite not typing in the address) and can therefore capture people coming from social media.

A website which carries advertising and is either (a) an online version of an existing press or broadcast medium, (b) a compilation of online equivalents of a number of different media or (c) a 'magazine'-type medium which is found only on the internet.


Software or hardware that protects a private network from the public. The purpose of a firewall is to keep unauthorised outsiders from tampering with a computer system, thereby increasing a server's security.

Respectively the first Advertisement in an Advertising break and the last Advertisement in an Advertising break.

A fixing charge is imposed when an advertiser wishes to fix their ad in a certain position - generally first ad or last ad in the advertising break.

Floodlight tag is an HTML tag that is placed on your website to track conversions, such as a consumer making a purchase or completing an online form.

A newspaper which is distributed free-of-charge, usually weekly and mostly local.

The number of times the Target Audience has an opportunity to see a commercial or campaign.

Front page solus


Gatefold refers to an opening position in a magazine or supplement and folded to the same size as the other pages but intended to be opened out for reading.

The total number of households or individuals in a television audience viewing for two or more time periods within a schedule of spots or programmes without regard to duplication. For example, an individual is counted twice in gross audience if he/she appears in the audience of two of the spots or programmes within the schedule Gross Average Audience (GAA) Rating – The sum of the percent of households or persons tuning or viewing during the average minute of each telecast of the programme, including repeat telecasts during the report interval. Duplicated tuning and viewing to the same programme (or its repeat telecast) by the same household during the reporting period is counted each time.

The sum of audiences, in terms of people or households viewing, where there is exposure to the same commercial or programme on multiple occasions. Two gross impressions could mean the same person was in the audience on two occasions or that two different people had been exposed only once.

The total number of in-Market impressions delivered by an advertising campaign expressed as a percentage of a market population. One rating point represents impressions equal to 1 percent of the market population. GRPs is more commonly used in the UK to describe TVRs or TV Ratings.

In press media, that part of a printed page which is closest to the spine of a publication, outside the normal area of 'live matter'. Advertisements will sometimes be 'bled into the gutter', meaning that their printed area will extend into the gutter (to ensure the contiguity of two sides of a double page spread, for instance).


When a poster site is facing oncoming traffic or pedestrian flow.

An old expression for Impressions. The number of times an item of data has been accessed. For example, each time a user downloads a home page on the Web that is considered one hit to that Web site. Hits also refer to the number of page and/or graphic files requested by visitors.

The page that appears each time users start their Web browser. Users can choose any page on the Web as their home page.

A computer system that is accessed by a user working at a remote location. The computer system that contains the data is called the host, while the computer at which the user sits is called a remote terminal.

An occupied housing unit. An individual or group of individuals occupying a house, apartment, group of rooms, or single room.

All Housekeepers that fall within the socio-economic grade “ABC1” as defined by ABG NIELSEN MEDIA RESEARCH.

A takeover on a website where all formats are for a single advertiser.

“Housekeepers with Children” as defined by AGB NIELSEN MEDIA RESEARCH.

Abbreviation for Hyper Text Mark-up Language, the computer language used to create Web pages. It defines the page layout, fonts, graphics, and hyperlinks to other pages.

This is the fifth revision of the HTML standard and was put into place in 2015.

Abbreviation for Hyper Text Transfer Protocol, the underlying protocol used by the World Wide Web. HTTP defines how messages are formatted and transmitted, and what action Web servers and browsers should take in response to various commands.


The number of times a campaign is seen; in TV context a good analogy for this is impacts are pairs of eyes as this metric is unduplicated.

Inside Front Cover - position in a print title.

Number of homes or individuals exposed to an advertisement or group of advertisements. In Internet parlance, the total number of times an advertising banner has been served to the Web population. To be counted as an impression, the banner has to successfully load on the user's browser. If the user goes to another page on the same website that counts as two impressions and so on.

The numerical address for any system connected to the Internet. Every system on the Internet has an IP assigned to it. Also, rules used for transmitting data over a network.

Name of a flier or insert in a given newspaper or magazine title. Cost is based on the print run of the publication and the advertisers prints and delivers it to the publication. Insert costs are also based on weights and size.


Java is a general-purpose programming language with a number of features that make the language well-suited for use on the World Wide Web. Small Java applications are called Java applets and can be downloaded from a Web server and run on your computer by a Java-compatible Web browser.

The Joint National Readership Survey (JNRS) is the most definitive and respected benchmark in determining the buying and selling of advertising space in the print media in Ireland.

A JPEG is a type of still-image file found all over the Internet.  Files in this format end in .jpg or .jpeg, and are called JPEG (pronounced "JAY-peg") files, which stands for Joint Photographic Experts Group.


A programme that immediately precedes another programme on the same station or network.

The following program on the same station or network.

Lifestyle analysis system based on the concept that people have different aspirations and tastes at different stages of their lives: life cycle groups might include 'Dependent', 'Empty Nesters', 'Pre-family'. There are various proprietary systems which take this general form.

Poster site, most often a 48 sheet or 96 sheet, which is 'back-illuminated'.

Connections between one page or site on the Web and another. Links are mostly identified in highlighted and/or underlined text.


A TV programme made up of varied segments on a variety of subjects or themes.

An automated system that allows people to send an e-mail to one address, whereupon their message is copied and sent to all of the other subscribers to the list.

An original recording from which copies are made.

Outdoor format owned by JcDecaux that is similar in size to a bus shelter - back illuminated and scrolling format. These sites are currently only in Dublin.

Outdoor format owned by JcDecaux that is larger than a bus shelter but smaller than a billboard and is back illuminated. These sites are currently only in Dublin.

A Media Owner is a company or individual who has the right to sell outdoor advertising space.

All Men that fall within the socio-economic grade “ABC1”.

Advertising minutage refers to the amount of advertising and media carries every hour. These differ per station (TV/Radio) and has an impact on the amount of clutter that is contained within each ad-break.


Using a broadcast medium to appeal to audiences with special interests. For example, a specialist computing channel would be a narrowcast, because it appeals to an audience with a specific interest.

A programme distributor interconnected with stations or cable systems for the distribution of programming.


Generic name for poster advertising.

Outside back cover.

To reserve a holding for a given period of time on a media space. Note: some media owners do not accept options.

When an advertiser places an outdoor option this is held for that brand. If another brand wishes to "Call in" that option the brand who first places the option has 48 hours to confirm it or drop the option. If they confirm the option they cannot cancel the option.

The average number of times an individual notices an advertising message during a defined period of time.

Refer to definition of Peak.

Generic name for poster advertising.

Advertisement sales material which is attached to and encompasses the outer covers of a press publication.

Additional copies of a publication or other printed material that are produced in excess of those needed for distribution. Overruns are typically produced to meet additional needs or unexpected demand, or sometimes in the context of compensation.


Pre-selected list (eg of TV or radio spots or poster sites).

Programmatic buying is the algorithmic purchase and sale of advertising space in real time, which benefits both the publisher and advertiser. This extends to digital buying but can also extend to TV advertising.

The number of times a Web page has been successfully served to a user's browser.

Average number of Web pages each unique visitor has viewed on the listed site. This measure can help determine how many pages a person views per visit to a site, and thus indicate their level of interest in the particular site.

In audience research, a continuing sample of people or households that are measured repeatedly.

A broadcast television station that supplies programmes and commercials to another station (satellite station) to expand the coverage of the parent.

Pay TV for which subscribers pay on a programme bases, rather than on a monthly subscription basis.

Portable Document Format. A method for distributing formatted documents over the Internet.

TV rate card daypart/segment which defines the period of the broadcasting day during which the highest rates will be charged. Also used as informal shorthand for evening time.

Counting the movement of pedestrians past a given point.

Evaluation of a campaign's achievements after the event, often in terms of coverage and frequency.

A group of commercials, promos or announcements contained in a television program break.

Point of Purchase.

A place where information goes into or out of a computer. Also, an Internet term that refers to a number that is part of a URL address.

Point of Sale

Any specific position within an Advertising break.

An advertising site located outside the home, they come in a variety of standard sizes, measured by the number of sheets.

A company that plans and buys an outdoor campaign on behalf of a client often using sites bought from a number of different outdoor media owners.

A single message entered into a network communications system.

The date when a poster program is scheduled to commence. A three-day leeway is customary to allow for physical posting.

Everything done to a film or video after it is shot with a camera but before it airs.

Peak television viewing time and radio listening time, most often Television; 5pm-11pm & Radio; 7am-7pm.

Expressing or projecting a rating in terms of the estimated number of households or persons reached.

Pro rata means the cost is in proportion to the time length (meaning a fair share is being allocated).

Prospecting is finding new audiences that are the marketing to buy your product or services.

Personal Video Recorder - Sky Digital/Virgin etc.


Individuals viewing a station at least five minutes in a specific 15-minute period.


A price list showing rates charged for commercial time.

Estimated percentage of the universe of TV households (or other specified group) tuned to a program at once. Ratings are expressed as a percent.

A value equal to one percent (one rating) of a population or universe.

The approximate percentage of a target audience’s population who notice an advertising message at least once during an OOH campaign.

The number of readers a given print title has, which differs to circulation in that circulation is copies sold whereas readership counts the number of people reading that title. The Joint National Readership Survey is a survey which produces the readership report and includes important demographics about each title and also includes digital statistics of newspaper titles.

Readdressing any shortfall or surplus of ratings on TV due to over or under delivery.

Retargeting or remarketing allows us to show a follow up message to people who have already engaged with the ad or visited your website.

In sample research, a calculation of the percentage of initially designated sample units providing a response in a given survey. It may be calculated by dividing the number of pre-designated units (households or persons) in a survey that provide usable information by the total number of pre-designated units. Reflects the ratio of the final in-tab sample among pre-designated units to the total pre-designated sample.

An advertising term that refers to a commercial scheduled at the discretion of a station to run anywhere in the schedule.

An advertising term that refers to a digital advert placed at the discretion of a website owner to run anywhere on the website.


Advertising that is heavily concentrated in a short period of time in order to attain maximum reach.

Single spot that is transmitted with no other commercials delivering higher impact.

Unsold national ad time on the broadcast networks that remains after the preseason "up-front" buying period.

An electronic device that alters a broadcast signal transmission by encryption so it can’t be received without a decoder.

The percent of households (or persons) using television who are tuned to a specific program, station or network in a specific area at a specific time.

Share of Voice - The percentage of advertising activities for one brand within the total advertising activity for an entire sector or product type.

The poster site located on the lower rear of a bus provides a head-on display for reaching motorists and their passengers.

Joint broadcast by a TV and radio station whereby the TV station carries the video and the radio station carries the stereo sound. A frequency occurrence in public broadcasting.

'Tall' internet ad. format, its standard size generally agreed to be 120 pixels wide by 600 pixels high.

A brief statement or excerpt from an interview for use in radio or television news program.

In Internet parlance, an inappropriate attempt to use a mailing list or other network communications as if it were a broadcast medium by sending the same message to a large number of people who didn't ask for it.

This means programmes relating to major events which priced differently.

The percent or numbers of households viewing stations originating from an outside market.

Television station advertising or programming that go outside the station’s area of origin.

Any month where there is a different demand for Airtime across the month such that demand is at a significantly different level and price from the start to the end of the month; example: December (before Christmas and after Christmas).

Advertising campaigns with more than one-time length.

One specific portion of Airtime identified as available for purchase.

A measure of the margin of error in a survey result attributable to sampling.

Many Web sites try to be "sticky," which means they aim to offer surfers everything they want without having to leave and go to another site.

Sponsorship stings refer to the intro and out sting that bookmarks the sponsored programme. They vary in terms of length from 10 second to 7 second to 5 second.

Playing audio and/or video content immediately as it is downloaded from the Internet, rather than first storing it in a file on the receiving computer. A high-speed Internet connection is necessary.

Banner shaped bus-side poster site, most often situated on the nearside of the bus, to be seen by a pedestrian audience.


The situation where two or more Advertisements are joined back-to-back as if they were one Advertisement.

An occupied household having one or more television receivers in use.

Newspaper format which is approximately 34cms deep by 26cms wide.

Cutting from a magazine or newspaper which is sent to the advertiser as proof that the ad has appeared or that colour reproduction is of the required standard.

A device in one location that enables commands to go to a computer at a different location.

Generally, refers to a % of which the media bought has a tolerance level to deliver over or under the amount of ratings (Example: 10% tolerance level).

The duration of a Spot.

Counting the movement of vehicles past a given point.

A TVR or a rating as it is commonly called, represents 1% of a target audience watching a programme or an ad break at a particular time. A person must be viewing for at least 15 seconds to be considered in the calculation of a rating. An average rating of 15 for Adults for a programme means that, on average, 15% of all Adults watched the programme.

The ‘T’ shaped poster site on a bus, positioned on the driver side, making them ideal for reaching both drivers and pedestrians.


The situation where the Buyer Spend is less than the Buyer Commitments as set out in the Deal Memorandum at the end of the Term.

The number of unique individuals who have visited a Web site at least once in the reporting period.

The population chosen for the research study. Universe estimates are the estimated number of actual households or people from which the sample will be taken and to which data from the sample will be projected.

Uniform Resource Locator. It describes the location and access method of a resource (Web page) on the Internet.


Viewability is a digital metric that aims to track only impressions that can actually be seen by users. For example, if the ad is shown below the fold and the user doesn't scroll down that impression would not be a "viewable" impression.

A marketing strategy which encourages the target audience to pass on information to others, often using online media and attaching a brand's name or message to the information circulated, with the result (if successful) that very large numbers of recipients are exposed to the activity.

Stands for video on demand where TV or audio-visual ads are broadcast on players such as RTE, TV3, 4OD, Youtube or other networks of short or long term TV content.

VOSDAL stands for Viewed-On-Same-Day-As-Live. VOSDAL viewing includes time-shift viewing viewed on the same day as the original broadcast. It is included in the overnight files released at 9.30am the following day. For example, if a film commences at 5.30pm and is recorded and then viewed later the same evening at 9.00pm, this viewing is captured and reported in the overnight file published the following day.


A web server is a computer permanently connected to the Internet that serves information, files, Web pages, and other services to any client (e.g. computer with a browser) that logs onto it and requests them.

A statistical quantity calculated by multiplying each value in a group by an assigned weight, summing these products and dividing the total by the sum of the weights.

A weight is a numerical value assigned to each unit of the sample. Weighting is the process of multiplying the unit data by the unit weight and then summing these weighted values across all units of the sample.

The period during which a network or another distributor has contractual rights to show or sell a program.

An advertisement site which covers the whole of a single or double deck bus.  Effectively ‘wrapping’ the entire bus.

World Wide Web